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Username Res Avatar Spy Avatar Nationality Biography #Games
Tyrrox United Kingdom

Tyrrox#2572 | 21 | Alarmingly British | If I'm talking to you I'm getting info from you.

639
CITC Australia

Musician Aspiring ~ Student Spiraling


Contact Me:

Discord - CITC#6760

Snapchat - sammy.thegiant

1953
pam United States

Cute bow, nice personality. 🎀 Discord: pam#8924







2212
morningcatt United States

Good Morning || morningcatt#8920 || Let me know how I can help ~🐱

1210

Players

Username Res Avatar Spy Avatar Nationality Biography #Games
Ba3henov United States

DM me on discord for an avatar request Ba3henov#9002

Strategy guide for new players: 3 silver rules

2910
damon United States 2547
Bassem Egypt 2290
imbapingu United Nations
  1. [09:52] FRUlTQUEEN: If a game has no Merlin, then Pingu is merlin
  2. [09:52] FRUlTQUEEN: That's the rule
2218
Strahd United Kingdom

Offapp 2.3 in my honour.

1980
J0nY Bulgaria I don't lie on Tuesday.
P.S. Ba3henov is a spy.
1932
benjk United States Minor Outlying Islands Bow club is cute 1910
zuzusangry United States

l0gic

1866
chaos22 Japan

If you're:

acro, Aster, Baz, CITC, damon, enokii, exmag, Hades, IonGrey, J0nY, Keeling, kt, Maria, meir, not.me, a rainbow farting cat, Sabby, Scaff, Strahd, Tyrrox, zuzusangry, 

or our lord and saviour Senpai Nub

Thank you all for making this a memorable, incredible year for me in the Avalon community.

Love yall,

Chaos.

June 21, 2018-June 26, 2019.


1665
sophtoph United Nations

[21:55] Tyrrox: I dont like soph's play as a vt play

[21:55] Tyrrox: its just too happy


Hi friends, I’m a happy vt!

1504
theharshone Niue

[13:36] XiaoWeiXiao: harsh is very merliny

[15:24] FruitQueen: harsh is mvp

[23:32] pam: idk why everyone loves harsh

1440
Yules Palestinian Territory, Occupied 1306
AveHunter United States Minor Outlying Islands

No one knows the true nature of AveHunter. Is it a hunter that's better than some but worse than others at finding its prey? Is it looking through all of the avenues for a good neighborhood to live and raise its family of woodland creatures? Or does it just like to sing Ave Maria in the shower?

The answer is: All of the Above

1258
Maria United Nations

My Name isn't actually Maria. I am resident potato warrior queen of this site.


LIL CAN GET REKT ( ͡° ͜ʖ ͡°)!!!



(thanks for the doodle thought :D)


1222
enokii Singapore

Hi :)

1213
starbird1002 United Kingdom


  1. [01:01] The assassin has shot starbird1002! starbird1002 was not merlin, Stromblessed was!
  2. [01:01] The resistance wins!
  3. [01:01] Incorrect Merlin guessers were: pam, vtgang, zuzusangry, eveningsquidd (->starbird1002)


1171
Besjbo United Nations

Goodhart's Law dictates that there exists no optimal bio

1149
Meymage United States

Magnificent Me - Ultimate Gamer, Chess Player, Writer, and aspiring Magician


Mark Briggs (Greatmax)

He prefers to play DLTK because the normal ranks have been played immensely by other speedrunners.  He prefers positional play over the risky tactical skirmishes of the normal ranks.  Hardcore gamer seeking challenges in life.
-----
Attributes: His abilities are best reflected outside of the Goldeneye blitz format.  Primarily used control style 1.1 with auto-aim off.  GE Mission Status: Top American Dark_LTK Champion and runner up.  14 proven Levels by October 31, 2008.  Completed all 20 levels of the LTK league.  PP7 Specialist on the 00 Agent level.  Completed single segment runs of agent, secret agent, and double agent.
-----
Multiplayer status: He has won every GE multiplayer game since the games inception except for several games.  He played hundreds of games of Goldeneye 64 Multiplayer from normal to flag tag.  He overwhelmingly wins in free for all up to four players.  Mostly takes 1v1, 2v1, and 3v1 by storm.  First to 20 points in normal mode where my opponents might have 8, 5, and 3 points totaling 16..  Hosted tournaments playing other players afterward.  Typical awards he has received are Most Professional and Most Deadly for multiplayer.  Great Perfect Dark multiplayer experience.
-----
Magic Status: An all-around gamer known as Magi Master at many Magic the Gathering shops using unorthodox ideas like mono-red defense and counterspell-less blue.  He participated in numerous magic tournaments placing 2nd or 1st in many of them in a variety of formats.  His preference is the legacy format using non-net, non cookie-cuttish decks.  A great drafter and Sealed Deck gamer he has Pro potential.
-----
Captain of his High School Chess team three of his four years resulting in the (Mark era) suffering only three losses out of 45 games against strong opposition.  The only one in his High School’s history during his freshman year to achieve a perfect 10-0 against his opponents from 10 other high schools.  Vice President of Chess Club in college.
-----
Mastered FFVI beating the game at level 19 (low level clear) and maxed the natural game at level 99 with all spells, equipment, and abilities.  Dido with Final Fantasy Tactics.
After beating Sim City, completed favorite building game of Civilization II on Emperor level with a rating of 9560 (956%).  It's over 9000!
-----
Excellent at Super Smash Brothers series by being the best in his group in all versions N64, Melee, Brawl, WiiU, and others.  Mains Shiek with Marth secondary in Melee.  Has mastered the other characters in Melee.  Avid DnD player of forth edition.  Invoker, Storm War Priest, Warlord, Wizard, and Cleric are his primary uses.  Has used other characters too.
--- 
At board games he conquers Risk, an expert Scrabble player, Settlers of Catan, Dominion, Social Deduction games, and excellent in 2006 by placing 6th in Washington’s State Chess Open.
-----
On April 08, 2008, Mark announced retirement from the game GE 007 to focus on Perfect Dark making an epic return in the License to Kill league.  Has climbed well into the top 30 right now.  Owns two games of The Resistance: Avalon - Played all varations leading to an understanding making it interesting on either side.  
-----
Recap of first update rank: Best
Blitz category (Speed Normal): 116th in overall time.
Knowledge category (Stealth DLTK): 2nd in overall level completions.
Multiplayer (Strength): Advanced - In public play scores 20 points before other three opponents total that most of the time.  4v4 Free for All.  Sight on, Auto Aim off.  Proficient in everything from slappers to power weapons.  Knowledge of all maps and equipment.
Max's Videos
Anycraze.com User = Tawnos (Active)
Schemingmind.com User = Clearchesser (Inactive)
lichess.org User = Clearchesser (Active)
Facebook User = Mark Briggs
Retirement: Completed the LTK league with Streets and became 112th in overall normal time.
F.K.A. Maxout and TheGameMaster
Location: Washington State U.S.A
Recruited: April 3, 2008 to the normal ranks at 116th.
Submit this to the obvious.
From Youtube:
Correct, Covert, Strategist and Ultimate Gamer.
Primarily older school and tabletop.  My focus of gaming involves Chess, Magic the Gathering, Mario I-III, World, Mega Man, Link I-III, Goldeneye 64, Goldeneye 64 Wii, Perfect Dark, TWINE, Tomorrow Never Dies, Mario Kart, MK Wii, Sim City, MK Double Dash, Final Fantasy IV-IX, Final Fantasy Tactics, Ogre Battle, Ogre Battle 64, Civilization, Civilization II, Super Smash Brothers, SSBM, SSBB, WiiU, Dokupon Kingdom, Scrabble, Settlers of Catan, Tales of Symphonia, and The Resistance: Avalon.
Uploaded videos of selected games only.
Author at Fanfiction.net.  Pen name: M. Briggs
Ogre Battle SNES Master - The March of the Black Queen - Lord Mark HP 999/999 STR AGI INT 255 / CHA ALI LUK 100 - 3 Slash/1 Iniankai - Ogre Plate.

My elite.net profile link below.

https://rankings.the-elite.net/~Greatmax/goldeneye/ltk


1046
Westley United States 1018
Myhero Canada
No it is not from Myhero Academia 
Mentally insane economics, politics, and stats student. 





954
jiop United Nations 935
NyanCat United States

a.k.a. NyanDog, Raven, T, BBsAlt, CallMeWhenYouGetThere, BreadyForCurie, BiggerPamFanThanYouCelia


YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCvbJccPNvXu3yPdk_xybUFw

Discord: NyanCat#1142

secrethitler.io: Nyan

theresistanceplus.com: NyanCat


Favorite quotes:

"click the cat"

"WE DONT ALLOW NAKEDS"

“Even wrong info is better than no info”

"I throw five games for every game I carry”

"You're only as good as your worst opponent"

"The unauthorized distribution of promotional content on behalf of a third party organization is strictly prohibited at this establishment"

923
morgenstern United Nations Be humble 901
della United Nations 889
remy Antarctica

if u kno u kno 

816
keeling United Nations 805
tofy United Nations

tofy

768
rio Indonesia

I just want to play. Give me a game pleaseee...

757
exmag United States

am maggie#3453 on discord <3

732
lauren United Nations
  1. [14:55] Xzoo: a buh-buh-buh de hhuh nuh huh

  2. [14:56] jonah: buh buh




  3. [12:49] morningcatt M: SHUTTJQFREKLIGHJERQBHJREFNQBJRKE FJB EFCN ECDQ WEDN MFQWRJERVWHBLKVREWLBHKHLBKREVWEWLJEWVRHBLIERWVHBIHBJLCREQEHWJBLEF HJ LJVGUCERWKGHUREKWCGHJRKHEJWFKHEGRJKGHUREFWJHREFWGJKGFJQKGVGRJEKFWDEFWKJGFLE1DJFBLJDEHWBFKJREWHGFKGHJECR
729
anders United Nations 723
Hades United States Minor Outlying Islands
Pog Quotes from intellectual individuals

  1. [20:57] pingy: hades ur litterally
  2. [20:57] pingy: a living meme
  3. [20:57] pingy: so
  4. [20:58] Hades: ?
  5. [20:58] pingy: ofc youd troll
  6. [11:38] SirClappedMcPoggers: i think hades might become a good father in the future
  7. [12:51] promanos: I hope you dorwn
688
lightamulet United States

yes, I offapped dirty. sue me.

680
sidewalkill United Nations

WE WONS!! pm me at side#3261

680
freshererer Angola

this site has a bunch of racists on it dont bother playing here

675
krAzykAzi United States 656
pingy Sweden

How to play Merlin:

[07:50] anonymouse255: I auto res pingy for being nice to me :D [07:50] anonymouse255: i don't care if he's a spy or not :)

654
Bassassin United Nations 652
skies United Nations 651
Crouton United States

I just really miss bb

649
Kt United Nations 649
not.me Australia

Hi, I'm not me! :)


~"In a world where you can be anything, be kind."~

633
Yhromed United Nations 623
bobjones United Nations

[21:32] Mission 1 failed with 2 fails.


[16:00] Mission 5 failed with 3 fails.

[16:00] The spies win!



  1. [21:02] bobjones: wait hades onrejjs 3.2
  2. [21:02] bobjones: aight fuckit im shooting pam
  3. [21:02] The assassin has shot pam! pam was not merlin, Hades was!


  1. [16:28] Mission 4 failed with 3 fails.
  2. [16:28] The spies win!


  1. [23:55] bobjones: fuckit
  2. [23:55] bobjones: 50/50
  3. [23:55] The assassin has shot AmuseD! They were correct!
  4. [23:55] The spies win!


  1. [13:00] bobjones: would third do 2.4 as merlin
  2. [13:00] bobjones: fuckit i hate long assassination talks
  3. [13:00] The assassin has shot Third! They were correct!


  1. [14:30] skimisgod: i know how I just don't know who to choose
  2. [14:30] bobjones: eh just shoot jen for fun
  3. [14:30] The assassin has shot ognjen05! They were correct!
  4. [14:30] The spies win!
  1. [20:16] J0nY: bobjones is so weird
607
aster Italy Life is too short to eat pizza crust.
606
Blastman Madagascar :thonk: 604
nompol01 Thailand

If do you want know my secret 
let's find answer all about 3+3 = ? Or Number meaning

591
gip United Nations

my name backwards is pig haha

569
bb Cuba

am bb

558
anon United Nations 556
n00bButReadGuide United States

Gold AND Silver rules

554
Severus United Nations 552
Muse United States Minor Outlying Islands


551
Mercury United Nations

Mercury’s hot too

550
keleco United Nations

There is no such thing as a misclick!

529
Tofu United Nations

hai, am a tiny little tofu trying to find my place in the world

520
promanos United Nations 495
Logicbomb China

Can my VT ever not get fked by PRs?


489
kaitou Japan 488
kinematic Korea, Democratic People's Republic of


주체사상
476
hakha3 Hakha's Islands Why are you stalking me? 472
2High2Fall Canada

Someone start an Avalon Anonymous group for me. I need help.

469
palavak Czech Republic

Blacklist:

Abiogenesiz

babyshark


457
chrome Isle of Man

cash money

448
ft029 United States

If I'm tired, then I may make awful plays, and you should tell me to sleep.


If I'm not tired, I'll still make awful plays, but hopefully the good plays will compensate.

442
mathwizardaz United States Minor Outlying Islands

Can I be Artemis Fowl?

“Don't tell me the moon is shining; show me the glint of light on broken glass.” 
― Anton Chekhov

“Everyone is a moon, and has a dark side which he never shows to anybody.” 
― Mark Twain

“The moon is a loyal companion.
It never leaves. It’s always there, watching, steadfast, knowing us in our light and dark moments, changing forever just as we do. Every day it’s a different version of itself. Sometimes weak and wan, sometimes strong and full of light. The moon understands what it means to be human.
Uncertain. Alone. Cratered by imperfections.” 
― Tahereh Mafi


440
somebody United Nations 435
david2808 Serbia 432
DECEARINGEGG United Nations Listen to Alex Lahey. You won’t regret it. 432
bocaben Israel

CS Student, Software Developer, Board game addict.    bocaben#8290

432
amused United Nations

[22:42] cottage: Avalon to SH is like a five star restaurant to mcdonalds

428
Xzoo Viet Nam

Aladdin my fav bollywood movie                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            

420
Whitemorality United States

They call me Merlin

418
finalchesslover2002 United Nations 418
RealGrizzle123 United States 414
xaxin United Nations I am a noob, not an alt so please excuse my bad plays
410
snow Canada
I walked through the door with you
The air was cold
But something 'bout it felt like home somehow, and I
Left my scarf there at your mother's house
And you've still got it
In your drawer, even now

Photo album on the counter
Your cheeks were turning red
You used to be a little kid with glasses in a twin-sized bed
And your mother's telling stories 'bout you on the baseball team

You tell me about your past, thinking your future was me

And I know it's long gone and
That magic's not here no more
Maybe we got lost in translation
Or maybe I asked for too much
But maybe this thing was a masterpiece
'Til you tore it all up

And there was nothing else I could do
I might be okay, but I'm not fine at all
So I forget about you long enough
To forget why I needed to

But you call me up again just to break me like a promise
So casually cruel in the name of being honest
And time won't fly, it's like I'm paralyzed by it
I'd like to be my old self again
But I'm still trying to find it
I'm a crumpled up piece of paper lying here
'Cause I remember it all too well

And after plaid shirt days and nights when you made me your own
Now you mail back my things and I walk home alone
But you keep my old scarf from that very first week
'Cause it reminds you of innocence and it smells like me
You can't get rid of it 'cause you remember it all too well

And there we are again, when I loved you so,
Back before you lost the one real thing you've ever known
It was rare, I was there, I remember it

Oh, I remember it all too well
410
jonah Cocos (Keeling) Islands

dont keel me or i wheel be sad

408
jeremy81 Canada 404
Wayne United States 388
McLeodKG Serbia 387
pmoomm Thailand

res with m1 hammer!

380
bananaaaaaaas United States 379
scoobydoo Isle of Man 376
Mysticsquire United Nations 369
CurryLad Korea, Democratic People's Republic of

I res our Supreme Leader

367
Riot Israel

Professional flamer and professor at keeling university. Besties with viola and confirmed sexy by avehunter. Bit of crazy, bit of genius, but mostly crazy. Will return when you least expect it.


366
thea United Nations 365
dawnofnight United Nations 358
jojo519519 United Nations 355
ansonberns Antarctica

why is everyone upside down

ansonberns#4950 on discord

352
Joshuathenoob United Nations

Chaos

344
Ref-Rain United Nations

mizuryu

344
UnknownStranger United Nations

This guy sucks being a perci

344
canon7575 United Nations
  1. [13:43] canon7575: [13:18] NyanHat: lol [13:19] NyanHat: [15:15] seren: canon you can have the award of being one of the most mentally disabled people I played with on this site, a pretty difficult achievement tbh [15:15] Maria has left the lobby. [15:16] Maria has joined the lobby. [15:16] canon7575: ty seren [15:16] canon7575: this award is an honor, will cherish [13:19] NyanHat: can i frame this
  2. [13:43] canon7575: xD there you go
342
aguamenti United Nations 337
cottage Taiwan, Province of China

i'm a good lil christian boy pls no flame 

333
Datpunkard Japan - I AM AN ASSASSIN -   331
Dylan4000 United Nations 329
Merliner United Nations

"Fight! You must fight! If you win, you live. If you lose, you die. If you don't fight, you can't win!"

329
GuA United Nations 325
bmucciaccia Brazil

Helliuuu! Wait, bruh moment here

322
Nova Iceland 311
LuckyLeo United States

Diana is a cutie

309
NeverMaf Latvia 309
deleted United States 306
Maximovic96 Germany 305
liang Canada

What is logic?

301
moustafa769 United Nations 290
nana United Nations 289
side6969 United Nations

not gonna lie [female] is pretty hot sad day she is in [country]


ok so there’s this conference for like medicine development and shit and i wanna get in cuz

1. It helps me for future

2. It’s in [country]


1 like = 1 moral support for this poor boy


278
Daniella Uganda Daniella Help 276
Third United Nations 272
trickyputty New Zealand

If you lick me during M1's I will onpick you as hammer

272
Tinder United Nations 270
metaresistance United Nations

life goes on

269
Stromblessed Netherlands 267
mitrap Indonesia


260
rerepes Afghanistan

🦶👁👄👁🦶

253
Wanderer31 United States 248
hai United Nations 246
bentobox United Nations 240
monarchwill United States

I honestly have no clue what I am doing.

238
Mellifluous United Nations 237
No3 United Nations 237
sapphire778 United Nations 236
Lemius United States 234
Liminati Australia 234
KeepYourselfSafe United Nations 231
ProNub Australia

Just a normal Australian nerd ;)

230
username United Nations 228
PikNik United Nations 228
Mono United Nations



ShitlistBassem
tofy
anon
Maria
Keeling
pam
sectumsempra
tyrroxBald manChampionsg

Lovelistchaos22strahdMyheroserenkhaledzuzusangryimbapingu
AveHunter
LogicBombcitcSophtoph
LovelistLillynethbesjbo








shit candidates rioodin








227
NyanDog United States

NyanCat's alt :)

224
Presillience France 219
lavanon United Nations 215
MonsterRP Croatia 213
ucs11 United Nations 211
omarou4981 United Nations 211
Jack Antarctica

🦑 ASSASSINATION IS EDUCATION 🦑


add me on discord jakku#1872

209
ArchiGibran United Nations 206
dianage United Nations

This life of games and diligent trust, its the things we do, and the things we must. I'm now tired of being cussed so go to sleep forever end to dust.

206
flanders United Nations 206
Cleric United Nations 205
plankton United Nations

seren is my alt

citc was here 23-09-2019

204
AmAKitty United Nations 202
yeahjeets United Nations 202
Niko United Nations 201
AlmostMatt Canada

I sometimes onreject to see more proposals or because a mission would look bad to me even if I was basic resistance.

In 6p/8p/10p, I'll app critical as picker. In other counts I'll reject as picker.

I'll spy people who offapp dirty.

200
iplaytowin United Nations 199
makurai United Nations 199
waelawkjrlkr United Nations     [14:47] waelawkjrlkr: i wish to make ppl i roast
    [14:47] waelawkjrlkr: laugh and cry
    [14:47] waelawkjrlkr: at the same time
197
haffaGUZZ United Nations 196
dragonmma2 United Nations 194
Shun United Nations 193
dannyboy United States
  1. [23:18] steampunkbaby: I want to be a guy so bad!
192
StarWarsXD United States I record all games I play btw, check out my Youtube channel here: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC0JFcTe0tK9dNy3gKEtbLJA 191
saki United Nations 191
anonymouse255 Australia FInish a game in around 30 seconds... #random guessing 188
MasterMaster United States Minor Outlying Islands

Geforce, the way it's meant to be played.

186
mdelmundo United Nations 185
Thedaniwoman United Nations 178
normalguy United Nations 178
defund United Nations avalon noob 177
mrblackdx United Kingdom 176
leler Thailand

hello i am leler, i like to drink water, nice to meet you!

174
Shravan United Nations 174
meowggie United Nations 173
tmeee United Nations




171
NoobKing Canada Winrates are probably all horrible, also makk is boosted in league 171
pennless United States

aspiring rapper

170
mrh99 United States Minor Outlying Islands
  1. [16:06] mrh99: Quoting:
  2. [16:05] mrh99: this is never my team unless m1s are shit
169
sam6969 Djibouti

[14:09] fwfw: im just approving anything cuz yall trippin

167
luhar United Nations 165
leesal United Nations

August is my first month - I'm learning this as I go and putting it all into practice. Still getting the hang of the PR roles :)

165
created United Nations 164
Nightreon Canada 163
wheeling Antarctica 162
Naizea Denmark

TySUX TySUX TySUX TySUX TySUX TySUX TySUX TySUX TySUX TySUX TySUX TySUX TySUX TySUX TySUX TySUX TySUX TySUX TySUX TySUX TySUX TySUX TySUX TySUX 

162
meur United Nations 161
diamondcut United Nations 159
jay1234433 United Nations 159
Thara United Nations 157
MrMeme Australia

That one guy who claims merlin at the start of every game... xD

156
piccolo United Nations

am exmag:)

156
PhantomTriforce Libya

I am very good at Merlin!

156
cardrecipient United Nations

*******: All of yesterday I was licking the lady

155
Bean Netherlands 154
echo Antarctica

is there an echo in here?

153
euphoria Iceland 153
itayaton United Nations 152
vbfoo United Nations 150
bigz_200 United States

Ummm...Hi!

146
firecub United Nations straight fire 146
jucijuce France Ima sheep. Bahhhhhh 146
kpfund Thailand

no more talk !

146
Pinocchio United States Spy 145
HyperLuigi32 Timor-Leste

Gigagoon

145
lil France 144
Tanki United States Minor Outlying Islands

Seem to be getting better at this game. Used to a play a lot back in 2017 under ChessChampion1, you might remember me :) 

143
Kitzuo United Nations 143
myBride22 United Nations 143
l3relata United Nations 143
nightza United Nations 142
FAHZA United Nations 142
jerbeeaarr United States Minor Outlying Islands
141
BadAssBoss United Nations 140
charmendar United Nations 140
Nuggets United Nations 137
Ballza United Nations 137
Stevedog Australia 136
calliopse United Nations 136
skier United Nations 135
xMorgana United Nations 135
Bakaya United Nations 132
Nikolaj United States 132
Kexhiluz United Nations 130
PrussianArms United Kingdom



Prussia (/ˈprʌʃə/; German: Preußen, pronounced [ˈpʁɔʏsn̩] (listen)) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia on the southeast coast of the Baltic Sea. It was de facto dissolved by an emergency decree transferring powers of the Prussian government to German Chancellor Franz von Papen in 1932 and de jure by an Allied decree in 1947. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organised and effective army. Prussia, with its capital in Königsberg and from 1701 in Berlin, decisively shaped the history of Germany.

In 1871, German states (notably excluding Austria) united to create the German Empire under Prussian leadership. In November 1918, the monarchies were abolished and the nobility lost its political power during the German Revolution of 1918–19. The Kingdom of Prussia was thus abolished in favour of a republic—the Free State of Prussia, a state of Germany from 1918 until 1933. From 1933, Prussia lost its independence as a result of the Prussian coup, when the Nazi regime was successfully establishing its Gleichschaltung laws in pursuit of a unitary state. With the end of the Nazi regime, in 1945, the division of Germany into allied-occupation zones and the separation of its territories east of the Oder–Neisse line, which were incorporated into Poland and the Soviet Union, the State of Prussia ceased to exist de facto.[2][3] Prussia existed de jure until its formal abolition by the Allied Control Council Enactment No. 46 of 25 February 1947.[4]

The name Prussia derives from the Old Prussians; in the 13th century, the Teutonic Knights—an organized Catholic medieval military order of German crusaders—conquered the lands inhabited by them. In 1308, the Teutonic Knights conquered the region of Pomerelia with Gdańsk (Danzig). Their monastic state was mostly Germanised through immigration from central and western Germany, and, in the south, it was Polonised by settlers from Masovia. The Second Peace of Thorn (1466) split Prussia into the western Royal Prussia, a province of Poland, and the eastern part, from 1525 called the Duchy of Prussia, a fief of the Crown of Poland up to 1657. The union of Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia in 1618 led to the proclamation of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701.

Prussia entered the ranks of the great powers shortly after becoming a kingdom,[5][6][7][8] and exercised most influence in the 18th and 19th centuries. During the 18th century it had a major say in many international affairs under the reign of Frederick the Great. During the 19th century, Chancellor Otto von Bismarck united the German principalities into a "Lesser Germany", which excluded the Austrian Empire.

At the Congress of Vienna (1814–15), which redrew the map of Europe following Napoleon's defeat, Prussia acquired rich new territories, including the coal-rich Ruhr. The country then grew rapidly in influence economically and politically, and became the core of the North German Confederation in 1867, and then of the German Empire in 1871. The Kingdom of Prussia was now so large and so dominant in the new Germany that Junkers and other Prussian élites identified more and more as Germans and less as Prussians.

The Kingdom ended in 1918 along with other German monarchies that collapsed as a result of the German Revolution. In the Weimar Republic, the Free State of Prussia lost nearly all of its legal and political importance following the 1932 coup led by Franz von Papen. Subsequently, it was effectively dismantled into Nazi German Gaue in 1935. Nevertheless, some Prussian ministries were kept and Hermann Göring remained in his role as Minister President of Prussia until the end of World War II. Former eastern territories of Germany that made up a significant part of Prussia lost the majority of their German population after 1945 as the People's Republic of Poland and the Soviet Union both absorbed these territories and had most of its German inhabitants expelled by 1950. Prussia, deemed a bearer of militarism and reaction by the Allies was officially abolished by an Allied declaration in 1947. The international status of the former eastern territories of Germany was disputed until the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany in 1990, while its return to Germany remains a topic among far right politicians, the Federation of Expellees and various political revisionists.

The term Prussian has often been used, especially outside Germany, to emphasise professionalism, aggressiveness, militarism and conservatism of the Junker class of landed aristocrats in the East who dominated first Prussia and then the German Empire.

Symbols

The main coat of arms of Prussia, as well as the flag of Prussia, depicted a black eagle on a white background.

The black and white national colours were already used by the Teutonic Knights and by the Hohenzollern dynasty. The Teutonic Order wore a white coat embroidered with a black cross with gold insert and black imperial eagle. The combination of the black and white colours with the white and red Hanseatic colours of the free cities Bremen, Hamburg and Lübeck, as well as of Brandenburg, resulted in the black-white-red commercial flag of the North German Confederation, which became the flag of the German Empire in 1871.[citation needed]

Suum cuique ("to each, his own"), the motto of the Order of the Black Eagle created by King Frederick I in 1701, was often associated with the whole of Prussia. The Iron Cross, a military decoration created by King Frederick William III in 1813, was also commonly associated with the country.[citation needed] The region, originally populated by Baltic Old Prussians who were Christianised, became a favoured location for immigration by (later mainly Protestant) Germans (see Ostsiedlung), as well as Poles and Lithuanians along the border regions.

Territory

Before its abolition, the territory of the Kingdom of Prussia included the provinces of West Prussia; East Prussia; Brandenburg; Saxony (including much of the present-day state of Saxony-Anhalt and parts of the state of Thuringia in Germany); Pomerania; Rhineland; Westphalia; Silesia (without Austrian Silesia); Lusatia; Schleswig-Holstein; Hanover; Hesse-Nassau; and a small detached area in the south called Hohenzollern, the ancestral home of the Prussian ruling family. The land that the Teutonic Knights occupied was flat and covered with rich soil. The land was perfectly suited to the large-scale raising of wheat.[9] The rise of early Prussia was based on the raising and selling of wheat. Teutonic Prussia became known as the "bread basket of Western Europe" (in German, Kornkammer, or granary). The port cities of Stettin (Szczecin) in Pomerania, Danzig (Gdańsk) in Prussia, Riga in Livonia, Königsberg (Kaliningrad), and Memel (Klaipėda) rose on the back of this wheat production. Wheat production and trade brought Prussia into close relationship with the Hanseatic League during the period of time from 1356 (official founding of the Hanseatic League) until the decline of the League in about 1500.

The expansion of Prussia based on its connection with the Hanseatic League cut both Poland and Lithuania off from the coast of the Baltic Sea and trade abroad.[10] This meant that Poland and Lithuania would be traditional enemies of Prussia, which was still called the Teutonic Knights.[11]


History

Teutonic Order

In 1211, Andrew II of Hungary granted Burzenland in Transylvania as a fiefdom to the Teutonic Knights, a German military order of crusading knights, headquartered in the Kingdom of Jerusalem at Acre. In 1225, he expelled them again, and they had to transfer to the Baltic Sea. Konrad I, the Polish duke of Masovia, unsuccessfully attempted to conquer pagan Prussia in crusades in 1219 and 1222.[12] In 1226, Duke Konrad invited the Teutonic Knights to conquer the Baltic Prussian tribes on his borders.

During 60 years of struggles against the Old Prussians, the Order created an independent state that came to control Prūsa. After the Livonian Brothers of the Sword joined the Teutonic Order in 1237, they also controlled Livonia (now Latvia and Estonia). Around 1252, they finished the conquest of the northernmost Prussian tribe of the Skalvians as well as the western Baltic Curonians, and erected the Memel Castle, which developed into the major port city of Memel (Klaipėda). The final border between Prussia and the adjoining Grand Duchy of Lithuania was determined in the Treaty of Melno in 1422.

The Hanseatic League was officially formed in northern Europe in 1356 as a group of trading cities that came to hold a monopoly on all trade leaving the interior of Europe and Scandinavia and on all sailing trade in the Baltic Sea for foreign countries.[13] The businessmen of the interiors of Sweden, Denmark, and Poland came to feel oppressed by the Hanseatic League.[citation needed]

In the course of the Ostsiedlung (German eastward expansion) process, settlers were invited, bringing changes in the ethnic composition as well as in language, culture, and law. As a majority of these settlers were Germans, Low German became the dominant language.

The Knights were subordinate to the pope and the emperor. Their initially close relationship with the Polish Crown deteriorated after they conquered Polish-controlled Pomerelia and Danzig (Gdańsk) in 1308. Eventually Poland and Lithuania, allied through the Union of Krewo (1385), defeated the Knights in the Battle of Grunwald (Tannenberg) in 1410.

The Thirteen Years' War (1454–1466) began when the Prussian Confederation, a coalition of Hanseatic cities of western Prussia, rebelled against the Order and requested help from the Polish king. The Teutonic Knights were forced to acknowledge the sovereignty of, and to pay tribute to, King Casimir IV Jagiellon of Poland in the Second Peace of Thorn, losing western Prussia (Royal Prussia) to Poland in the process. Pursuant to the Second Peace of Thorn, two Prussian states were established[14]

Duchy of Prussia

In 1525, Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach, a member of a cadet branch of the House of Hohenzollern, became a Lutheran Protestant and secularised the Order's remaining Prussian territories into the Duchy of Prussia.[15] This was the area east of the mouth of the Vistula River, later sometimes called "Prussia proper". For the first time, these lands came into the hands of a branch of the Hohenzollern family. (The Hohenzollern dynasty had ruled the Margraviate of Brandenburg to the west, a German state centred on Berlin, since the 15th century.) Furthermore, with his renunciation of the Order, Albert could now marry and produce legitimate heirs.

Brandenburg-Prussia

Brandenburg and Prussia united two generations later. In 1594 Anna, granddaughter of Albert I and daughter of Duke Albert Frederick (reigned 1568–1618), married her cousin Elector John Sigismund of Brandenburg. When Albert Frederick died in 1618 without male heirs, John Sigismund was granted the right of succession to the Duchy of Prussia, then still a Polish fief. From this time the Duchy of Prussia was in personal union with the Margraviate of Brandenburg. The resulting state, known as Brandenburg-Prussia, consisted of geographically disconnected territories in Prussia, Brandenburg, and the Rhineland lands of Cleves and Mark.


During the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648), various armies repeatedly marched across the disconnected Hohenzollern lands, especially the occupying Swedes. The ineffective and militarily weak Margrave George William (1619–1640) fled from Berlin to Königsberg, the historic capital of the Duchy of Prussia, in 1637. His successor, Frederick William I (1640–1688), reformed the army to defend the lands.

Frederick William I went to Warsaw in 1641 to render homage to King Władysław IV Vasa of Poland for the Duchy of Prussia, which was still held in fief from the Polish crown. In January 1656, during the first phase of the Second Northern War (1654–1660), he received the duchy as a fief from the Swedish king who later granted him full sovereignty in the Treaty of Labiau (November 1656). In 1657 the Polish king renewed this grant in the treaties of Wehlau and Bromberg. With Prussia, the Brandenburg Hohenzollern dynasty now held a territory free of any feudal obligations, which constituted the basis for their later elevation to kings.

Frederick William I became known[by whom?] as the "Great Elector" for his achievements in organizing the electorate, which he accomplished by establishing an absolute monarchy in Brandenburg-Prussia. Above all, he emphasised the importance of a powerful military to protect the state's disconnected territories, while the Edict of Potsdam (1685) opened Brandenburg-Prussia for the immigration of Protestant refugees (especially Huguenots), and he established a bureaucracy to carry out state administration efficiently.

Kingdom of Prussia

On 18 January 1701, Frederick William's son, Elector Frederick III, upgraded Prussia from a duchy to a kingdom and crowned himself King Frederick I. In the Crown Treaty of 16 November 1700, Leopold I, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, allowed Frederick only to title himself "King in Prussia", not "King of Prussia". The state of Brandenburg-Prussia became commonly known as "Prussia", although most of its territory, in Brandenburg, Pomerania, and western Germany, lay outside Prussia proper. The Prussian state grew in splendour during the reign of Frederick I, who sponsored the arts at the expense of the treasury.[16]

Frederick I was succeeded by his son, Frederick William I (1713–1740), the austere "Soldier King", who did not care for the arts but was thrifty and practical.[citation needed] He is considered the creator of the vaunted Prussian bureaucracy and the professionalised standing army, which he developed into one of the most powerful in Europe, although his troops only briefly saw action during the Great Northern War. In view of the size of the army in relation to the total population, Mirabeau said later: "Prussia, is not a state with an army, but an army with a state." Frederick William also settled more than 20,000 Protestant refugees from Salzburg in thinly populated eastern Prussia, which was eventually extended to the west bank of the River Memel, and other regions. In the treaty of Stockholm (1720), he acquired half of Swedish Pomerania.[citation needed]


The king died in 1740 and was succeeded by his son, Frederick II, whose accomplishments led to his reputation as "Frederick the Great".[17] As crown prince, Frederick had focused, primarily, on philosophy and the arts.[18] He was an accomplished flute player. In 1740, Prussian troops crossed over the undefended border of Silesia and occupied Schweidnitz. Silesia was the richest province of Habsburg Austria.[19] It signalled the beginning of three Silesian Wars (1740–1763).[20] The First Silesian War (1740–1742) and the Second Silesian War (1744–1745) have, historically, been grouped together with the general European war called the War of Austrian Succession (1740–1748). Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI had died on 20 October 1740. He was succeeded to the throne by his daughter, Maria Theresa.

By defeating the Austrian Army at the Battle of Mollwitz on 10 April 1741, Frederick succeeded in conquering Lower Silesia (the northwestern half of Silesia).[21] In the next year, 1742, he conquered Upper Silesia (the southeastern half). Furthermore, in the third Silesian War (usually grouped with the Seven Years' War) Frederick won a victory over Austria at the Battle of Lobositz on 1 October 1756. In spite of some impressive victories afterward, his situation became far less comfortable the following years, as he failed in his attempts to knock Austria out of the war and was gradually reduced to a desperate defensive war. However, he never gave up and on 3 November 1760 the Prussian king won another battle, the hard-fought Battle of Torgau. Despite being several times on the verge of defeat Frederick, allied with Great Britain, Hanover and Hesse-Kassel, was finally able to hold the whole of Silesia against a coalition of Saxony, Austria, France and Russia.[22] Voltaire, a close friend of the king, once described Frederick the Great's Prussia by saying "...it was Sparta in the morning, Athens in the afternoon." From these wars onwards the Austria–Prussia rivalry dominated German politics until 1866.


Silesia, full of rich soils and prosperous manufacturing towns, became a vital region to Prussia, greatly increasing the nation's area, population, and wealth.[23] Success on the battleground against Austria and other powers proved Prussia's status as one of the great powers of Europe. The Silesian Wars began more than a century of rivalry and conflict between Prussia and Austria as the two most powerful states operating within the Holy Roman Empire (although both had extensive territory outside the empire).[24] In 1744, the County of East Frisia fell to Prussia following the extinction of its ruling Cirksena dynasty.

In the last 23 years of his reign until 1786, Frederick II, who understood himself as the "first servant of the state", promoted the development of Prussian areas such as the Oderbruch. At the same time he built up Prussia's military power and participated in the First Partition of Poland with Austria and Russia (1772), an act that geographically connected the Brandenburg territories with those of Prussia proper. During this period, he also opened Prussia's borders to immigrants fleeing from religious persecution in other parts of Europe, such as the Huguenots. Prussia became a safe haven in much the same way that the United States welcomed immigrants seeking freedom in the 19th century.[25]

Frederick the Great, the first "King of Prussia", practised enlightened absolutism. He introduced a general civil code, abolished torture and established the principle that the Crown would not interfere in matters of justice. He also promoted an advanced secondary education, the forerunner of today's German gymnasium (grammar school) system, which prepares the brightest pupils for university studies.[26] The Prussian education system was emulated in various countries, including the United States.[25]

Napoleonic Wars

During the reign of King Frederick William II (1786–1797), Prussia annexed additional Polish territory through further Partitions of Poland. His successor, Frederick William III (1797–1840), announced the union of the Prussian Lutheran and Reformed churches into one church.[27]

Prussia took a leading part in the French Revolutionary Wars, but remained quiet for more than a decade due to the Peace of Basel of 1795, only to go once more to war with France in 1806 as negotiations with that country over the allocation of the spheres of influence in Germany failed. Prussia suffered a devastating defeat against Napoleon Bonaparte's troops in the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt, leading Frederick William III and his family to flee temporarily to Memel. Under the Treaties of Tilsit in 1807, the state lost about one third of its area, including the areas gained from the second and third Partitions of Poland, which now fell to the Duchy of Warsaw. Beyond that, the king was obliged to pay a large indemnity, to cap his army at 42,000 men, and to let the French garrison troops throughout Prussia, effectively making the Kingdom a French satellite.[28]

In response to this defeat, reformers such as Stein and Hardenberg set about modernising the Prussian state. Among their reforms were the liberation of peasants from serfdom, the Emancipation of Jews and making full citizens of them. The school system was rearranged, and in 1818 free trade was introduced. The process of army reform ended in 1813 with the introduction of compulsory military service.[29] By 1813, Prussia could mobilize almost 300,000 soldiers, more than half of which were conscripts of the Landwehr of variable quality. The rest consisted of regular soldiers that were deemed excellent by most observers, and very determined to repair the humiliation of 1806.

After the defeat of Napoleon in Russia, Prussia quit its alliance with France and took part in the Sixth Coalition during the "Wars of Liberation" (Befreiungskriege) against the French occupation. Prussian troops under Marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher contributed crucially (with the British) in the Battle of Waterloo of June 1815 to the final victory over Napoleon. Prussia's reward in 1815 at the Congress of Vienna was the recovery of her lost territories, as well as the whole of the Rhineland, Westphalia, 40% of Saxony and some other territories. These western lands were of vital importance because they included the Ruhr Area, the centre of Germany's fledgling industrialisation, especially in the arms industry. These territorial gains also meant the doubling of Prussia's population. In exchange, Prussia withdrew from areas of central Poland to allow the creation of Congress Poland under Russian sovereignty.[28] In 1815 Prussia became part of the German Confederation.

Wars of liberation

The first half of the 19th century saw a prolonged struggle in Germany between liberals, who wanted a united, federal Germany under a democratic constitution, and conservatives, who wanted to maintain Germany as a patchwork of independent, monarchical states with Prussia and Austria competing for influence. One small movement that signaled a desire for German unification in this period was the Burschenschaft student movement, by students who encouraged the use of the black-red-gold flag, discussions of a unified German nation, and a progressive, liberal political system. Because of Prussia's size and economic importance, smaller states began to join its free trade area in the 1820s. Prussia benefited greatly from the creation in 1834 of the German Customs Union (Zollverein), which included most German states but excluded Austria.[27]

In 1848 the liberals saw an opportunity when revolutions broke out across Europe. Alarmed, King Frederick William IV agreed to convene a National Assembly and grant a constitution. When the Frankfurt Parliament offered Frederick William the crown of a united Germany, he refused on the grounds that he would not accept a crown from a revolutionary assembly without the sanction of Germany's other monarchs.[30]

The Frankfurt Parliament was forced to dissolve in 1849, and Frederick William issued Prussia's first constitution by his own authority in 1850. This conservative document provided for a two-house parliament. The lower house, or Landtag was elected by all taxpayers, who were divided into three classes whose votes were weighted according to the amount of taxes paid. Women and those who paid no taxes had no vote. This allowed just over one-third of the voters to choose 85% of the legislature, all but assuring dominance by the more well-to-do men of the population. The upper house, which was later renamed the Herrenhaus ("House of Lords"), was appointed by the king. He retained full executive authority and ministers were responsible only to him. As a result, the grip of the landowning classes, the Junkers, remained unbroken, especially in the eastern provinces.[31]

Wars of unification

In 1862 King Wilhelm I appointed Otto von Bismarck as Prime Minister of Prussia. Bismarck was determined to defeat both the liberals and conservatives and increase Prussian supremacy and influence among the German states. There has been much debate as to whether Bismarck actually planned to create a united Germany when he set out on this journey, or whether he simply took advantage of the circumstances that fell into place. Certainly his memoirs paint a rosy picture of an idealist[citation needed], but these were written with the benefit of hindsight and certain crucial events could not have been predicted. What is clear is that Bismarck curried support from large sections of the people by promising to lead the fight for greater German unification. He eventually guided Prussia through three wars, which together brought William the position of German Emperor.

Schleswig Wars

The Kingdom of Denmark was at the time in personal union with the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, both of which had close ties with each other, although only Holstein was part of the German Confederation. When the Danish government tried to integrate Schleswig, but not Holstein, into the Danish state, Prussia led the German Confederation against Denmark in the First War of Schleswig (1848–1851). Because Russia supported Austria, Prussia also conceded predominance in the German Confederation to Austria in the Punctation of Olmütz in 1850.

In 1863, Denmark introduced a shared constitution for Denmark and Schleswig. This led to conflict with the German Confederation, which authorised the occupation of Holstein by the Confederation, from which Danish forces withdrew. In 1864, Prussian and Austrian forces crossed the border between Holstein and Schleswig initiating the Second War of Schleswig. The Austro-Prussian forces defeated the Danes, who surrendered both territories. In the resulting Gastein Convention of 1865 Prussia took over the administration of Schleswig while Austria assumed that of Holstein.

Austro-Prussian War

Bismarck realised that the dual administration of Schleswig and Holstein was only a temporary solution, and tensions rose between Prussia and Austria. The struggle for supremacy in Germany then led to the Austro-Prussian War (1866), triggered by the dispute over Schleswig and Holstein.

On the Austrian side stood the south German states (including Bavaria and Württemberg), some central German states (including Saxony), and Hanover in the north. On the side of Prussia were Italy, most north German states, and some smaller central German states. Eventually, the better-armed Prussian troops won the crucial victory at the Battle of Königgrätz under Helmuth von Moltke the Elder. The century-long struggle between Berlin and Vienna for dominance of Germany was now over. As a side show in this war, Prussia defeated Hanover in the Battle of Langensalza (1866). While Hanover hoped in vain for help from Britain (as they had previously been in personal union), Britain stayed out of a confrontation with a continental great power and Prussia satisfied its desire for merging the once separate territories and gaining strong economic and strategic power, particularly from the full access to the resources of the Ruhr.

Bismarck desired Austria as an ally in the future, and so he declined to annex any Austrian territory. But in the Peace of Prague in 1866, Prussia annexed four of Austria's allies in northern and central Germany—Hanover, Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel), Nassau and Frankfurt. Prussia also won full control of Schleswig-Holstein. As a result of these territorial gains, Prussia now stretched uninterrupted across the northern two-thirds of Germany and contained two-thirds of Germany's population. The German Confederation was dissolved, and Prussia impelled the 21 states north of the Main River into forming the North German Confederation.

Prussia was the dominant state in the new confederation, as the kingdom comprised almost four-fifths of the new state's territory and population. Prussia's near-total control over the confederation was secured in the constitution drafted for it by Bismarck in 1867. Executive power was held by a president, assisted by a chancellor responsible only to him. The presidency was a hereditary office of the Hohenzollern rulers of Prussia. There was also a two-house parliament. The lower house, or Reichstag (Diet), was elected by universal male suffrage. The upper house, or Bundesrat (Federal Council) was appointed by the state governments. The Bundesrat was, in practice, the stronger chamber. Prussia had 17 of 43 votes, and could easily control proceedings through alliances with the other states.

As a result of the peace negotiations, the states south of the Main remained theoretically independent, but received the (compulsory) protection of Prussia. Additionally, mutual defence treaties were concluded. However, the existence of these treaties was kept secret until Bismarck made them public in 1867, when France tried to acquire Luxembourg.

Franco-Prussian War

The controversy with the Second French Empire over the candidacy of a Hohenzollern to the Spanish throne was escalated both by France and Bismarck. With his Ems Dispatch, Bismarck took advantage of an incident in which the French ambassador had approached William. The government of Napoleon III, expecting another civil war among the German states, declared war against Prussia, continuing Franco-German enmity. Honouring their treaties, however, the German states joined forces and quickly defeated France in the Franco-Prussian War in 1870. Following victory under Bismarck's and Prussia's leadership, Baden, Württemberg and Bavaria, which had remained outside the North German Confederation, accepted incorporation into a united German Empire.

The empire was a "Lesser German" solution (in German, "kleindeutsche Lösung") to the question of uniting all German-speaking peoples into one state, because it excluded Austria, which remained connected to Hungary and whose territories included non-German populations. On 18 January 1871 (the 170th anniversary of the coronation of King Frederick I), William was proclaimed "German Emperor" (not "Emperor of Germany") in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles outside Paris, while the French capital was still under siege.

German Empire

The two decades after the unification of Germany were the peak of Prussia's fortunes, but the seeds for potential strife were built into the Prusso-German political system.

The constitution of the German Empire was a slightly amended version of the North German Confederation's constitution. Officially, the German Empire was a federal state. In practice, Prussia's relationship with the rest of the empire was somewhat confusing. The Hohenzollern kingdom included three-fifths of the German territory and two-thirds of its population. The Imperial German Army was, in practice, an enlarged Prussian army, although the other kingdoms (Bavaria, Saxony and Württemberg) retained their own armies. The imperial crown was a hereditary office of the House of Hohenzollern, the royal house of Prussia. The prime minister of Prussia was, except for two brief periods (January–November 1873 and 1892–94), also imperial chancellor.[citation needed] But the empire itself had no right to collect taxes directly from its subjects; the only incomes fully under federal control were the customs duties, common excise duties, and the revenue from postal and telegraph services. While all men above age 25 were eligible to vote in imperial elections, Prussia retained its restrictive three-class voting system. This effectively required the king/emperor and prime minister/chancellor to seek majorities from legislatures elected by two different franchises. In both the kingdom and the empire, the original constituencies were never redrawn to reflect changes in population, meaning that rural areas were grossly overrepresented by the turn of the 20th century.

As a result, Prussia and the German Empire were something of a paradox. Bismarck knew that his new German Reich was now a colossus out of all proportion to the rest of the continent. With this in mind, he declared Germany a satisfied power, using his talents to preserve peace, for example at the Congress of Berlin. Bismarck had barely any success in some of his domestic policies, such as the anti-Catholic Kulturkampf, but he also had mixed success on ones like Germanisation or expulsion of Poles of foreign nationality (Russian or Austro-Hungarian).

Frederick III was emperor for just 99 days in 1888 upon the death of his father, dying from cancer.

At age 29, William became Emperor William II after a difficult youth and conflicts with his British mother Victoria, Princess Royal. He turned out to be a man of limited experience, narrow and reactionary views, poor judgment, and occasional bad temper, which alienated former friends and allies.




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