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Moderators

Username Res Avatar Spy Avatar Nationality Biography #Games
maddie Philippines

You may not always see me, but I always see you 🔮. If you don’t see me around, you may reach me on discord @Chi#1313.

39
Tyrrox United Kingdom

I claim Tyrrox#2572

381
bocaben Israel

CS Student, Software Developer, Board game addict.    bocaben#8290

380
morningcatt United States

Good Morning || morningcatt#8920 please be my friend on discord ;_;

912

Players

Username Res Avatar Spy Avatar Nationality Biography #Games
damon United States 2029
imbapingu United Nations
  1. [09:52] FRUlTQUEEN: If a game has no Merlin, then Pingu is merlin
  2. [09:52] FRUlTQUEEN: That's the rule
1713
chaos22 Japan OMG CROUTON 1611
Bassem Egypt 1545
Ba3henov United States

Strategy guide for new players

DM me on discord for an avatar request Ba3henov#9002

Chaos22 for mod 2019

1481
citc Finland

The only thing scarier than leaving home is never leaving at all

1401
zuzusangry United States

l0gic

1270
Besjbo United Nations

Goodhart's Law dictates that there exists no optimal bio

1119
Yules Russian Federation 1086
Westley United States 1002
sophtoph United Nations

Pick good m1s pls

937
AveHunter United States Minor Outlying Islands

No one knows the true nature of AveHunter. Is it a hunter that's better than some but worse than others at finding its prey? Is it looking through all of the avenues for a good neighborhood to live and raise its family of woodland creatures? Or does it just like to sing Ave Maria in the shower?

The answer is: All of the Above

909
meir United States

Kazakhstan m3s cleanest in the region, except of course for citc's

883
enokii Singapore 866
starbird1002 United Kingdom Hey guys!  I can give you some free misplays and unmerls! 734
theharshone United Nations

[13:36] XiaoWeiXiao: harsh is very merliny

[15:24] FruitQueen: harsh is mvp

724
Keeling United Nations 722
freshererer Angola

this site has a bunch of racists on it dont bother playing here

675
J0nY Bulgaria

Are you stalking me?

666
benjk United States

Expert bridge and barbu player, but still learning at bughouse (team) chess, normal chess and this.

652
exmag United States

am maggie#3453 on discord <3

643
Blastman Madagascar :thonk: 604
skies United Nations 592
nompol01 Thailand

If you want know my secret 
let's find answer all about 3+3 = ?

585
rio Indonesia

I just want to play. Give me a game pleaseee...

577
lightamulet United States

yes, I offapped dirty. sue me.

575
Bassassin United Nations 567
aster Italy Life is too short to eat pizza crust.
553
bb Cuba

am bb

550
sidewalkill United Nations

they be makin' millions, I be makin' memes

542
not.me Australia

Hi, I'm not me! :)

537
Tofu United Nations

hai, am a tiny little tofu trying to find my place in the world

520
pingy Sweden


498
Maria United Nations

My Name isn't actually Maria, I am resident potato warrior queen of this site and Lillyneth is my wife BACK OFF HOMEWRECKERS  left ;_;

496
anon United Nations 485
Logicbomb China

Can my VT ever not get fked by PRs?


470
2High2Fall Canada

Someone start an Avalon Anonymous group for me. I need help.

468
hakha3 Hakha's Islands Why are you stalking me? 466
Myhero Canada
Hello, you have been visited by the heroic hero, like to instantly die :) If you are the following people, I hope you are not on my team
1. Itayaton 
2. Jeremy81

Have a nice day ^_^
457
david2808 Serbia 432
ft029 United States

If I'm tired, then I may make awful plays, and you should tell me to sleep.


If I'm not tired, I'll still make awful plays, but hopefully the good plays will compensate.

427
kinematic Korea, Democratic People's Republic of


주체사상
421
chrome Isle of Man

cash money

419
finalchesslover2002 United Nations 418
Whitemorality United States

They call me Merlin

417
xaxin United Nations I am a noob, not an alt so please excuse my bad plays
410
tofy United Nations

tofy

408
krAzykAzi United States Minor Outlying Islands 400
gip United Nations

my name backwards is pig haha

394
Crouton United States

I just really miss bb

388
DECEARINGEGG Micronesia, Federated States of

Pan nerd who plays football

382
mathwizardaz United States Minor Outlying Islands

Can I be Artemis Fowl?

“Don't tell me the moon is shining; show me the glint of light on broken glass.” 
― Anton Chekhov

“Everyone is a moon, and has a dark side which he never shows to anybody.” 
― Mark Twain

“The moon is a loyal companion.
It never leaves. It’s always there, watching, steadfast, knowing us in our light and dark moments, changing forever just as we do. Every day it’s a different version of itself. Sometimes weak and wan, sometimes strong and full of light. The moon understands what it means to be human.
Uncertain. Alone. Cratered by imperfections.” 
― Tahereh Mafi


379
scoobydoo Isle of Man 376
CurryLad Korea, Democratic People's Republic of

I res our Supreme Leader

367
keleco United Nations

There is no such thing as a misclick!

359
dawnofnight United Nations 358
pmoomm Thailand

res with m1 hammer!

355
RealGrizzle123 United States 353
thea United Nations 353
ansonberns Antarctica

why is everyone upside down

ansonberns#4950 on discord

351
jojo519519 United Nations 351
Wayne United States 344
UnknownStranger United Nations

This guy sucks being a perci

342
joshuathenoob United Nations

Chaos

341
canon7575 United Nations
  1. [13:43] canon7575: [13:18] NyanHat: lol [13:19] NyanHat: [15:15] seren: canon you can have the award of being one of the most mentally disabled people I played with on this site, a pretty difficult achievement tbh [15:15] Maria has left the lobby. [15:16] Maria has joined the lobby. [15:16] canon7575: ty seren [15:16] canon7575: this award is an honor, will cherish [13:19] NyanHat: can i frame this
  2. [13:43] canon7575: xD there you go
341
Riot Israel

Professional flamer and professor at keeling university. Besties with viola and confirmed sexy by avehunter. Bit of crazy, bit of genius, but mostly crazy. Will return when you least expect it.


332
jiop United Nations 331
lauren United Nations

[20:51] citc: you're a tasty onion ring

329
GuA United Nations 325
aguamenti United Nations 325
Severus United Nations 323
Yhromed United Nations 314
Nova Iceland 311
Dylan4000 United Nations 305
jeremy81 Canada 293
moustafa769 United Nations 290
deleted United States 283
darkpsyduck United Nations 261
mitrap Indonesia


260
Datpunkard Japan My Only Fear is ............ 260
sabby91 India 258
Muse United States

am res <3

256
Wanderer31 United States 248
Mono United Nations



ShitlistBassem
tofy
anon
Maria
Keeling
pam
sectumsempra
tyrroxBald manChampionsg

Lovelistchaos22strahdMyheroserenkhaledzuzusangryimbapingu
AveHunter
LogicBombcitcSophtoph
LovelistLillynethbesjbo








shit candidates rioodin








227
rerepes Afghanistan

🦶👁👄👁🦶

225
ProNub Australia

Just a normal Australian nerd ;)

224
monarchwill United States

I honestly have no clue what I am doing.

220
sapphire778 United Nations 219
LuckyLeo United Nations

Ba3henov's better half

217
MonsterRP Croatia 213
Omarou4981 United Nations 207
dianage United Nations

This life of games and diligent trust, its the things we do, and the things we must. I'm now tired of being cussed so go to sleep forever end to dust.

206
jack Antarctica

🦑 ASSASSINATION IS EDUCATION 🦑


add me on discord jakku#1872

204
Niko United Nations 201
cottage Taiwan, Province of China

i'm a good lil christian boy pls no flame 

200
AlmostMatt Canada

I sometimes onreject to see more proposals or because a mission would look bad to me even if I was basic resistance.

In 6p/8p/10p, I'll app critical as picker. In other counts I'll reject as picker.

I'll spy people who offapp dirty.

200
Tinder United Nations 199
dragonmma2 United Nations 194
kaitou United Nations 192
Liminati Australia 192
ArchiGibran United Nations 192
palavak Czech Republic


190
Cleric United Nations 188
Hades United States Minor Outlying Islands

hello grapes.

188
mdelmundo United Nations 185
Daniella Uganda

[21:10] Strahd: It's BB post gender reassignment!

185
McLeodKG Serbia 181
mercury Cocos (Keeling) Islands 179
normalguy United Nations 178
MrBlackDX United Kingdom 175
IonGrey United States Minor Outlying Islands

People aren’t either Resistance or Spy. They’re like chef’s salads, with clean picks and hammer rejects chopped and mixed together in a vinaigrette of dirty offapps and res blitzes.

175
meowggie United Nations 173
StarWarsXD United States Minor Outlying Islands I record all games I play btw, check out my Youtube channel here: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC0JFcTe0tK9dNy3gKEtbLJA 172
defund United Nations avalon noob 171
NoobKing Canada Winrates are probably all horrible, also makk is boosted in league 171
metaresistance United Nations

life goes on

170
created United Nations 164
MrMeme Australia

That one guy who claims merlin at the start of every game... xD

156
piccolo United Nations

am exmag:)

156
Ref-Rain New Zealand 153
Bean Netherlands 152
vbfoo United Nations 150
echo Antarctica

is there an echo in here?

149
itayaton United Nations 148
mrh99 United States Minor Outlying Islands
  1. [16:06] mrh99: Quoting:
  2. [16:05] mrh99: this is never my team unless m1s are shit
147
bigz_200 United States

Ummm...Hi!

145
firecub United States Minor Outlying Islands

"How do you know?"

"Rooter says."

145
Lemius United States 143
PikNik United Nations 143
myBride22 United Nations 143
l3relata United Nations 143
nightza United Nations 142
FAHZA United Nations 142
lavanon United Nations 141
jerbeeaarr United States Minor Outlying Islands
141
charmendar United Nations 140
Nuggets United Nations 137
Ballza United Nations 137
skier United Nations 135
Pinocchio United States Spy 134
side6969 United Nations

not gonna lie [female] is pretty hot sad day she is in [country]


ok so there’s this conference for like medicine development and shit and i wanna get in cuz

1. It helps me for future

2. It’s in [country]


1 like = 1 moral support for this poor boy


131
ucs11 United Nations 130
nana United Nations 130
lil France 129
MasterMaster United States Minor Outlying Islands

Geforce, the way it's meant to be played.

129
NyanDog United States

NyanCat's alt :)

128
chungus United Nations

o lawd he comin

128
emiliae United Nations 127
rOoTeR_sAyS United States Minor Outlying Islands

ask leading questions until you get exactly the answer you want

127
Wheeling Antarctica 126
PrussianArms United Kingdom



Prussia (/ˈprʌʃə/; German: Preußen, pronounced [ˈpʁɔʏsn̩] (listen)) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia on the southeast coast of the Baltic Sea. It was de facto dissolved by an emergency decree transferring powers of the Prussian government to German Chancellor Franz von Papen in 1932 and de jure by an Allied decree in 1947. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organised and effective army. Prussia, with its capital in Königsberg and from 1701 in Berlin, decisively shaped the history of Germany.

In 1871, German states (notably excluding Austria) united to create the German Empire under Prussian leadership. In November 1918, the monarchies were abolished and the nobility lost its political power during the German Revolution of 1918–19. The Kingdom of Prussia was thus abolished in favour of a republic—the Free State of Prussia, a state of Germany from 1918 until 1933. From 1933, Prussia lost its independence as a result of the Prussian coup, when the Nazi regime was successfully establishing its Gleichschaltung laws in pursuit of a unitary state. With the end of the Nazi regime, in 1945, the division of Germany into allied-occupation zones and the separation of its territories east of the Oder–Neisse line, which were incorporated into Poland and the Soviet Union, the State of Prussia ceased to exist de facto.[2][3] Prussia existed de jure until its formal abolition by the Allied Control Council Enactment No. 46 of 25 February 1947.[4]

The name Prussia derives from the Old Prussians; in the 13th century, the Teutonic Knights—an organized Catholic medieval military order of German crusaders—conquered the lands inhabited by them. In 1308, the Teutonic Knights conquered the region of Pomerelia with Gdańsk (Danzig). Their monastic state was mostly Germanised through immigration from central and western Germany, and, in the south, it was Polonised by settlers from Masovia. The Second Peace of Thorn (1466) split Prussia into the western Royal Prussia, a province of Poland, and the eastern part, from 1525 called the Duchy of Prussia, a fief of the Crown of Poland up to 1657. The union of Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia in 1618 led to the proclamation of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701.

Prussia entered the ranks of the great powers shortly after becoming a kingdom,[5][6][7][8] and exercised most influence in the 18th and 19th centuries. During the 18th century it had a major say in many international affairs under the reign of Frederick the Great. During the 19th century, Chancellor Otto von Bismarck united the German principalities into a "Lesser Germany", which excluded the Austrian Empire.

At the Congress of Vienna (1814–15), which redrew the map of Europe following Napoleon's defeat, Prussia acquired rich new territories, including the coal-rich Ruhr. The country then grew rapidly in influence economically and politically, and became the core of the North German Confederation in 1867, and then of the German Empire in 1871. The Kingdom of Prussia was now so large and so dominant in the new Germany that Junkers and other Prussian élites identified more and more as Germans and less as Prussians.

The Kingdom ended in 1918 along with other German monarchies that collapsed as a result of the German Revolution. In the Weimar Republic, the Free State of Prussia lost nearly all of its legal and political importance following the 1932 coup led by Franz von Papen. Subsequently, it was effectively dismantled into Nazi German Gaue in 1935. Nevertheless, some Prussian ministries were kept and Hermann Göring remained in his role as Minister President of Prussia until the end of World War II. Former eastern territories of Germany that made up a significant part of Prussia lost the majority of their German population after 1945 as the People's Republic of Poland and the Soviet Union both absorbed these territories and had most of its German inhabitants expelled by 1950. Prussia, deemed a bearer of militarism and reaction by the Allies was officially abolished by an Allied declaration in 1947. The international status of the former eastern territories of Germany was disputed until the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany in 1990, while its return to Germany remains a topic among far right politicians, the Federation of Expellees and various political revisionists.

The term Prussian has often been used, especially outside Germany, to emphasise professionalism, aggressiveness, militarism and conservatism of the Junker class of landed aristocrats in the East who dominated first Prussia and then the German Empire.

Symbols

The main coat of arms of Prussia, as well as the flag of Prussia, depicted a black eagle on a white background.

The black and white national colours were already used by the Teutonic Knights and by the Hohenzollern dynasty. The Teutonic Order wore a white coat embroidered with a black cross with gold insert and black imperial eagle. The combination of the black and white colours with the white and red Hanseatic colours of the free cities Bremen, Hamburg and Lübeck, as well as of Brandenburg, resulted in the black-white-red commercial flag of the North German Confederation, which became the flag of the German Empire in 1871.[citation needed]

Suum cuique ("to each, his own"), the motto of the Order of the Black Eagle created by King Frederick I in 1701, was often associated with the whole of Prussia. The Iron Cross, a military decoration created by King Frederick William III in 1813, was also commonly associated with the country.[citation needed] The region, originally populated by Baltic Old Prussians who were Christianised, became a favoured location for immigration by (later mainly Protestant) Germans (see Ostsiedlung), as well as Poles and Lithuanians along the border regions.

Territory

Before its abolition, the territory of the Kingdom of Prussia included the provinces of West Prussia; East Prussia; Brandenburg; Saxony (including much of the present-day state of Saxony-Anhalt and parts of the state of Thuringia in Germany); Pomerania; Rhineland; Westphalia; Silesia (without Austrian Silesia); Lusatia; Schleswig-Holstein; Hanover; Hesse-Nassau; and a small detached area in the south called Hohenzollern, the ancestral home of the Prussian ruling family. The land that the Teutonic Knights occupied was flat and covered with rich soil. The land was perfectly suited to the large-scale raising of wheat.[9] The rise of early Prussia was based on the raising and selling of wheat. Teutonic Prussia became known as the "bread basket of Western Europe" (in German, Kornkammer, or granary). The port cities of Stettin (Szczecin) in Pomerania, Danzig (Gdańsk) in Prussia, Riga in Livonia, Königsberg (Kaliningrad), and Memel (Klaipėda) rose on the back of this wheat production. Wheat production and trade brought Prussia into close relationship with the Hanseatic League during the period of time from 1356 (official founding of the Hanseatic League) until the decline of the League in about 1500.

The expansion of Prussia based on its connection with the Hanseatic League cut both Poland and Lithuania off from the coast of the Baltic Sea and trade abroad.[10] This meant that Poland and Lithuania would be traditional enemies of Prussia, which was still called the Teutonic Knights.[11]


History

Teutonic Order

In 1211, Andrew II of Hungary granted Burzenland in Transylvania as a fiefdom to the Teutonic Knights, a German military order of crusading knights, headquartered in the Kingdom of Jerusalem at Acre. In 1225, he expelled them again, and they had to transfer to the Baltic Sea. Konrad I, the Polish duke of Masovia, unsuccessfully attempted to conquer pagan Prussia in crusades in 1219 and 1222.[12] In 1226, Duke Konrad invited the Teutonic Knights to conquer the Baltic Prussian tribes on his borders.

During 60 years of struggles against the Old Prussians, the Order created an independent state that came to control Prūsa. After the Livonian Brothers of the Sword joined the Teutonic Order in 1237, they also controlled Livonia (now Latvia and Estonia). Around 1252, they finished the conquest of the northernmost Prussian tribe of the Skalvians as well as the western Baltic Curonians, and erected the Memel Castle, which developed into the major port city of Memel (Klaipėda). The final border between Prussia and the adjoining Grand Duchy of Lithuania was determined in the Treaty of Melno in 1422.

The Hanseatic League was officially formed in northern Europe in 1356 as a group of trading cities that came to hold a monopoly on all trade leaving the interior of Europe and Scandinavia and on all sailing trade in the Baltic Sea for foreign countries.[13] The businessmen of the interiors of Sweden, Denmark, and Poland came to feel oppressed by the Hanseatic League.[citation needed]

In the course of the Ostsiedlung (German eastward expansion) process, settlers were invited, bringing changes in the ethnic composition as well as in language, culture, and law. As a majority of these settlers were Germans, Low German became the dominant language.

The Knights were subordinate to the pope and the emperor. Their initially close relationship with the Polish Crown deteriorated after they conquered Polish-controlled Pomerelia and Danzig (Gdańsk) in 1308. Eventually Poland and Lithuania, allied through the Union of Krewo (1385), defeated the Knights in the Battle of Grunwald (Tannenberg) in 1410.

The Thirteen Years' War (1454–1466) began when the Prussian Confederation, a coalition of Hanseatic cities of western Prussia, rebelled against the Order and requested help from the Polish king. The Teutonic Knights were forced to acknowledge the sovereignty of, and to pay tribute to, King Casimir IV Jagiellon of Poland in the Second Peace of Thorn, losing western Prussia (Royal Prussia) to Poland in the process. Pursuant to the Second Peace of Thorn, two Prussian states were established[14]

Duchy of Prussia

In 1525, Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach, a member of a cadet branch of the House of Hohenzollern, became a Lutheran Protestant and secularised the Order's remaining Prussian territories into the Duchy of Prussia.[15] This was the area east of the mouth of the Vistula River, later sometimes called "Prussia proper". For the first time, these lands came into the hands of a branch of the Hohenzollern family. (The Hohenzollern dynasty had ruled the Margraviate of Brandenburg to the west, a German state centred on Berlin, since the 15th century.) Furthermore, with his renunciation of the Order, Albert could now marry and produce legitimate heirs.

Brandenburg-Prussia

Brandenburg and Prussia united two generations later. In 1594 Anna, granddaughter of Albert I and daughter of Duke Albert Frederick (reigned 1568–1618), married her cousin Elector John Sigismund of Brandenburg. When Albert Frederick died in 1618 without male heirs, John Sigismund was granted the right of succession to the Duchy of Prussia, then still a Polish fief. From this time the Duchy of Prussia was in personal union with the Margraviate of Brandenburg. The resulting state, known as Brandenburg-Prussia, consisted of geographically disconnected territories in Prussia, Brandenburg, and the Rhineland lands of Cleves and Mark.


During the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648), various armies repeatedly marched across the disconnected Hohenzollern lands, especially the occupying Swedes. The ineffective and militarily weak Margrave George William (1619–1640) fled from Berlin to Königsberg, the historic capital of the Duchy of Prussia, in 1637. His successor, Frederick William I (1640–1688), reformed the army to defend the lands.

Frederick William I went to Warsaw in 1641 to render homage to King Władysław IV Vasa of Poland for the Duchy of Prussia, which was still held in fief from the Polish crown. In January 1656, during the first phase of the Second Northern War (1654–1660), he received the duchy as a fief from the Swedish king who later granted him full sovereignty in the Treaty of Labiau (November 1656). In 1657 the Polish king renewed this grant in the treaties of Wehlau and Bromberg. With Prussia, the Brandenburg Hohenzollern dynasty now held a territory free of any feudal obligations, which constituted the basis for their later elevation to kings.

Frederick William I became known[by whom?] as the "Great Elector" for his achievements in organizing the electorate, which he accomplished by establishing an absolute monarchy in Brandenburg-Prussia. Above all, he emphasised the importance of a powerful military to protect the state's disconnected territories, while the Edict of Potsdam (1685) opened Brandenburg-Prussia for the immigration of Protestant refugees (especially Huguenots), and he established a bureaucracy to carry out state administration efficiently.

Kingdom of Prussia

On 18 January 1701, Frederick William's son, Elector Frederick III, upgraded Prussia from a duchy to a kingdom and crowned himself King Frederick I. In the Crown Treaty of 16 November 1700, Leopold I, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, allowed Frederick only to title himself "King in Prussia", not "King of Prussia". The state of Brandenburg-Prussia became commonly known as "Prussia", although most of its territory, in Brandenburg, Pomerania, and western Germany, lay outside Prussia proper. The Prussian state grew in splendour during the reign of Frederick I, who sponsored the arts at the expense of the treasury.[16]

Frederick I was succeeded by his son, Frederick William I (1713–1740), the austere "Soldier King", who did not care for the arts but was thrifty and practical.[citation needed] He is considered the creator of the vaunted Prussian bureaucracy and the professionalised standing army, which he developed into one of the most powerful in Europe, although his troops only briefly saw action during the Great Northern War. In view of the size of the army in relation to the total population, Mirabeau said later: "Prussia, is not a state with an army, but an army with a state." Frederick William also settled more than 20,000 Protestant refugees from Salzburg in thinly populated eastern Prussia, which was eventually extended to the west bank of the River Memel, and other regions. In the treaty of Stockholm (1720), he acquired half of Swedish Pomerania.[citation needed]


The king died in 1740 and was succeeded by his son, Frederick II, whose accomplishments led to his reputation as "Frederick the Great".[17] As crown prince, Frederick had focused, primarily, on philosophy and the arts.[18] He was an accomplished flute player. In 1740, Prussian troops crossed over the undefended border of Silesia and occupied Schweidnitz. Silesia was the richest province of Habsburg Austria.[19] It signalled the beginning of three Silesian Wars (1740–1763).[20] The First Silesian War (1740–1742) and the Second Silesian War (1744–1745) have, historically, been grouped together with the general European war called the War of Austrian Succession (1740–1748). Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI had died on 20 October 1740. He was succeeded to the throne by his daughter, Maria Theresa.

By defeating the Austrian Army at the Battle of Mollwitz on 10 April 1741, Frederick succeeded in conquering Lower Silesia (the northwestern half of Silesia).[21] In the next year, 1742, he conquered Upper Silesia (the southeastern half). Furthermore, in the third Silesian War (usually grouped with the Seven Years' War) Frederick won a victory over Austria at the Battle of Lobositz on 1 October 1756. In spite of some impressive victories afterward, his situation became far less comfortable the following years, as he failed in his attempts to knock Austria out of the war and was gradually reduced to a desperate defensive war. However, he never gave up and on 3 November 1760 the Prussian king won another battle, the hard-fought Battle of Torgau. Despite being several times on the verge of defeat Frederick, allied with Great Britain, Hanover and Hesse-Kassel, was finally able to hold the whole of Silesia against a coalition of Saxony, Austria, France and Russia.[22] Voltaire, a close friend of the king, once described Frederick the Great's Prussia by saying "...it was Sparta in the morning, Athens in the afternoon." From these wars onwards the Austria–Prussia rivalry dominated German politics until 1866.


Silesia, full of rich soils and prosperous manufacturing towns, became a vital region to Prussia, greatly increasing the nation's area, population, and wealth.[23] Success on the battleground against Austria and other powers proved Prussia's status as one of the great powers of Europe. The Silesian Wars began more than a century of rivalry and conflict between Prussia and Austria as the two most powerful states operating within the Holy Roman Empire (although both had extensive territory outside the empire).[24] In 1744, the County of East Frisia fell to Prussia following the extinction of its ruling Cirksena dynasty.

In the last 23 years of his reign until 1786, Frederick II, who understood himself as the "first servant of the state", promoted the development of Prussian areas such as the Oderbruch. At the same time he built up Prussia's military power and participated in the First Partition of Poland with Austria and Russia (1772), an act that geographically connected the Brandenburg territories with those of Prussia proper. During this period, he also opened Prussia's borders to immigrants fleeing from religious persecution in other parts of Europe, such as the Huguenots. Prussia became a safe haven in much the same way that the United States welcomed immigrants seeking freedom in the 19th century.[25]

Frederick the Great, the first "King of Prussia", practised enlightened absolutism. He introduced a general civil code, abolished torture and established the principle that the Crown would not interfere in matters of justice. He also promoted an advanced secondary education, the forerunner of today's German gymnasium (grammar school) system, which prepares the brightest pupils for university studies.[26] The Prussian education system was emulated in various countries, including the United States.[25]

Napoleonic Wars

During the reign of King Frederick William II (1786–1797), Prussia annexed additional Polish territory through further Partitions of Poland. His successor, Frederick William III (1797–1840), announced the union of the Prussian Lutheran and Reformed churches into one church.[27]

Prussia took a leading part in the French Revolutionary Wars, but remained quiet for more than a decade due to the Peace of Basel of 1795, only to go once more to war with France in 1806 as negotiations with that country over the allocation of the spheres of influence in Germany failed. Prussia suffered a devastating defeat against Napoleon Bonaparte's troops in the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt, leading Frederick William III and his family to flee temporarily to Memel. Under the Treaties of Tilsit in 1807, the state lost about one third of its area, including the areas gained from the second and third Partitions of Poland, which now fell to the Duchy of Warsaw. Beyond that, the king was obliged to pay a large indemnity, to cap his army at 42,000 men, and to let the French garrison troops throughout Prussia, effectively making the Kingdom a French satellite.[28]

In response to this defeat, reformers such as Stein and Hardenberg set about modernising the Prussian state. Among their reforms were the liberation of peasants from serfdom, the Emancipation of Jews and making full citizens of them. The school system was rearranged, and in 1818 free trade was introduced. The process of army reform ended in 1813 with the introduction of compulsory military service.[29] By 1813, Prussia could mobilize almost 300,000 soldiers, more than half of which were conscripts of the Landwehr of variable quality. The rest consisted of regular soldiers that were deemed excellent by most observers, and very determined to repair the humiliation of 1806.

After the defeat of Napoleon in Russia, Prussia quit its alliance with France and took part in the Sixth Coalition during the "Wars of Liberation" (Befreiungskriege) against the French occupation. Prussian troops under Marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher contributed crucially (with the British) in the Battle of Waterloo of June 1815 to the final victory over Napoleon. Prussia's reward in 1815 at the Congress of Vienna was the recovery of her lost territories, as well as the whole of the Rhineland, Westphalia, 40% of Saxony and some other territories. These western lands were of vital importance because they included the Ruhr Area, the centre of Germany's fledgling industrialisation, especially in the arms industry. These territorial gains also meant the doubling of Prussia's population. In exchange, Prussia withdrew from areas of central Poland to allow the creation of Congress Poland under Russian sovereignty.[28] In 1815 Prussia became part of the German Confederation.

Wars of liberation

The first half of the 19th century saw a prolonged struggle in Germany between liberals, who wanted a united, federal Germany under a democratic constitution, and conservatives, who wanted to maintain Germany as a patchwork of independent, monarchical states with Prussia and Austria competing for influence. One small movement that signaled a desire for German unification in this period was the Burschenschaft student movement, by students who encouraged the use of the black-red-gold flag, discussions of a unified German nation, and a progressive, liberal political system. Because of Prussia's size and economic importance, smaller states began to join its free trade area in the 1820s. Prussia benefited greatly from the creation in 1834 of the German Customs Union (Zollverein), which included most German states but excluded Austria.[27]

In 1848 the liberals saw an opportunity when revolutions broke out across Europe. Alarmed, King Frederick William IV agreed to convene a National Assembly and grant a constitution. When the Frankfurt Parliament offered Frederick William the crown of a united Germany, he refused on the grounds that he would not accept a crown from a revolutionary assembly without the sanction of Germany's other monarchs.[30]

The Frankfurt Parliament was forced to dissolve in 1849, and Frederick William issued Prussia's first constitution by his own authority in 1850. This conservative document provided for a two-house parliament. The lower house, or Landtag was elected by all taxpayers, who were divided into three classes whose votes were weighted according to the amount of taxes paid. Women and those who paid no taxes had no vote. This allowed just over one-third of the voters to choose 85% of the legislature, all but assuring dominance by the more well-to-do men of the population. The upper house, which was later renamed the Herrenhaus ("House of Lords"), was appointed by the king. He retained full executive authority and ministers were responsible only to him. As a result, the grip of the landowning classes, the Junkers, remained unbroken, especially in the eastern provinces.[31]

Wars of unification

In 1862 King Wilhelm I appointed Otto von Bismarck as Prime Minister of Prussia. Bismarck was determined to defeat both the liberals and conservatives and increase Prussian supremacy and influence among the German states. There has been much debate as to whether Bismarck actually planned to create a united Germany when he set out on this journey, or whether he simply took advantage of the circumstances that fell into place. Certainly his memoirs paint a rosy picture of an idealist[citation needed], but these were written with the benefit of hindsight and certain crucial events could not have been predicted. What is clear is that Bismarck curried support from large sections of the people by promising to lead the fight for greater German unification. He eventually guided Prussia through three wars, which together brought William the position of German Emperor.

Schleswig Wars

The Kingdom of Denmark was at the time in personal union with the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, both of which had close ties with each other, although only Holstein was part of the German Confederation. When the Danish government tried to integrate Schleswig, but not Holstein, into the Danish state, Prussia led the German Confederation against Denmark in the First War of Schleswig (1848–1851). Because Russia supported Austria, Prussia also conceded predominance in the German Confederation to Austria in the Punctation of Olmütz in 1850.

In 1863, Denmark introduced a shared constitution for Denmark and Schleswig. This led to conflict with the German Confederation, which authorised the occupation of Holstein by the Confederation, from which Danish forces withdrew. In 1864, Prussian and Austrian forces crossed the border between Holstein and Schleswig initiating the Second War of Schleswig. The Austro-Prussian forces defeated the Danes, who surrendered both territories. In the resulting Gastein Convention of 1865 Prussia took over the administration of Schleswig while Austria assumed that of Holstein.

Austro-Prussian War

Bismarck realised that the dual administration of Schleswig and Holstein was only a temporary solution, and tensions rose between Prussia and Austria. The struggle for supremacy in Germany then led to the Austro-Prussian War (1866), triggered by the dispute over Schleswig and Holstein.

On the Austrian side stood the south German states (including Bavaria and Württemberg), some central German states (including Saxony), and Hanover in the north. On the side of Prussia were Italy, most north German states, and some smaller central German states. Eventually, the better-armed Prussian troops won the crucial victory at the Battle of Königgrätz under Helmuth von Moltke the Elder. The century-long struggle between Berlin and Vienna for dominance of Germany was now over. As a side show in this war, Prussia defeated Hanover in the Battle of Langensalza (1866). While Hanover hoped in vain for help from Britain (as they had previously been in personal union), Britain stayed out of a confrontation with a continental great power and Prussia satisfied its desire for merging the once separate territories and gaining strong economic and strategic power, particularly from the full access to the resources of the Ruhr.

Bismarck desired Austria as an ally in the future, and so he declined to annex any Austrian territory. But in the Peace of Prague in 1866, Prussia annexed four of Austria's allies in northern and central Germany—Hanover, Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel), Nassau and Frankfurt. Prussia also won full control of Schleswig-Holstein. As a result of these territorial gains, Prussia now stretched uninterrupted across the northern two-thirds of Germany and contained two-thirds of Germany's population. The German Confederation was dissolved, and Prussia impelled the 21 states north of the Main River into forming the North German Confederation.

Prussia was the dominant state in the new confederation, as the kingdom comprised almost four-fifths of the new state's territory and population. Prussia's near-total control over the confederation was secured in the constitution drafted for it by Bismarck in 1867. Executive power was held by a president, assisted by a chancellor responsible only to him. The presidency was a hereditary office of the Hohenzollern rulers of Prussia. There was also a two-house parliament. The lower house, or Reichstag (Diet), was elected by universal male suffrage. The upper house, or Bundesrat (Federal Council) was appointed by the state governments. The Bundesrat was, in practice, the stronger chamber. Prussia had 17 of 43 votes, and could easily control proceedings through alliances with the other states.

As a result of the peace negotiations, the states south of the Main remained theoretically independent, but received the (compulsory) protection of Prussia. Additionally, mutual defence treaties were concluded. However, the existence of these treaties was kept secret until Bismarck made them public in 1867, when France tried to acquire Luxembourg.

Franco-Prussian War

The controversy with the Second French Empire over the candidacy of a Hohenzollern to the Spanish throne was escalated both by France and Bismarck. With his Ems Dispatch, Bismarck took advantage of an incident in which the French ambassador had approached William. The government of Napoleon III, expecting another civil war among the German states, declared war against Prussia, continuing Franco-German enmity. Honouring their treaties, however, the German states joined forces and quickly defeated France in the Franco-Prussian War in 1870. Following victory under Bismarck's and Prussia's leadership, Baden, Württemberg and Bavaria, which had remained outside the North German Confederation, accepted incorporation into a united German Empire.

The empire was a "Lesser German" solution (in German, "kleindeutsche Lösung") to the question of uniting all German-speaking peoples into one state, because it excluded Austria, which remained connected to Hungary and whose territories included non-German populations. On 18 January 1871 (the 170th anniversary of the coronation of King Frederick I), William was proclaimed "German Emperor" (not "Emperor of Germany") in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles outside Paris, while the French capital was still under siege.

German Empire

The two decades after the unification of Germany were the peak of Prussia's fortunes, but the seeds for potential strife were built into the Prusso-German political system.

The constitution of the German Empire was a slightly amended version of the North German Confederation's constitution. Officially, the German Empire was a federal state. In practice, Prussia's relationship with the rest of the empire was somewhat confusing. The Hohenzollern kingdom included three-fifths of the German territory and two-thirds of its population. The Imperial German Army was, in practice, an enlarged Prussian army, although the other kingdoms (Bavaria, Saxony and Württemberg) retained their own armies. The imperial crown was a hereditary office of the House of Hohenzollern, the royal house of Prussia. The prime minister of Prussia was, except for two brief periods (January–November 1873 and 1892–94), also imperial chancellor.[citation needed] But the empire itself had no right to collect taxes directly from its subjects; the only incomes fully under federal control were the customs duties, common excise duties, and the revenue from postal and telegraph services. While all men above age 25 were eligible to vote in imperial elections, Prussia retained its restrictive three-class voting system. This effectively required the king/emperor and prime minister/chancellor to seek majorities from legislatures elected by two different franchises. In both the kingdom and the empire, the original constituencies were never redrawn to reflect changes in population, meaning that rural areas were grossly overrepresented by the turn of the 20th century.

As a result, Prussia and the German Empire were something of a paradox. Bismarck knew that his new German Reich was now a colossus out of all proportion to the rest of the continent. With this in mind, he declared Germany a satisfied power, using his talents to preserve peace, for example at the Congress of Berlin. Bismarck had barely any success in some of his domestic policies, such as the anti-Catholic Kulturkampf, but he also had mixed success on ones like Germanisation or expulsion of Poles of foreign nationality (Russian or Austro-Hungarian).

Frederick III was emperor for just 99 days in 1888 upon the death of his father, dying from cancer.

At age 29, William became Emperor William II after a difficult youth and conflicts with his British mother Victoria, Princess Royal. He turned out to be a man of limited experience, narrow and reactionary views, poor judgment, and occasional bad temper, which alienated former friends and allies.




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seren is my alt

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AnissaKate France

Feel free to Google me. I am the legendary offpicker who will only onpick when hammering.

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That bad, dumb, and non-traditional player everyone knows

P.S: Don't expect me to make smart choices in game. I'm a bad player. (As multiple people have told me thus far)

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